Smartdust is a system of many tiny microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) such as sensors, robots, or other devices, that can detect, for example, light, temperature, vibration, magnetism, or chemicals. They are usually operated on a computer network wirelessly and are distributed over some area to perform tasks, usually sensing through radio-frequency identification. Without an antenna of much greater size the range of tiny smart dust communication devices is measured in a few millimeters and they may be vulnerable to electromagnetic disablement and destruction by microwave exposure.
Design and engineeringEdit
The concepts for Smart Dust emerged from a workshop at RAND in 1992 and a series of DARPA ISAT studies in the mid-1990s due to the potential military applications of the technology. The work was strongly influenced by work at UCLA and the University of Michigan during that period, as well as science fiction authors Stanislaw Lem, Neal Stephenson and Vernor Vinge. The first public presentation of the concept by that name was at the American Vacuum Society meeting in Anaheim in 1996.
A Smart Dust research proposal was presented to DARPA written by Kristofer S. J. Pister, Joe Kahn, and Bernhard Boser, all from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1997. The proposal, to build wireless sensor nodes with a volume of one cubic millimeter, was selected for funding in 1998. The project led to a workingmote smaller than a grain of rice, and larger "COTS Dust" devices kicked off the TinyOS effort at Berkeley.
The concept was later expanded upon by Kris Pister in 2001. A recent review discusses various techniques to take smartdust in sensor networks beyond millimeter dimensions to the micrometre level.
The Ultra-Fast Systems component of the Nanoelectronics Research Centre at the University of Glasgow is a founding member of a large international consortium which is developing a related concept: smart specks.
Smart dust entered the 2013 Gartner Hype Cycle on emerging technologies as the most speculative entrant.
- The Invincible, a 1964 science fiction novel with intrigue centered on self-configuring nanobotic swarms
- Prey (novel), a 2002 science fiction thriller by Michael Crichton about nanorobots which attack in swarms.
- Utility fog
- Programmable matter
- Grey goo
- Self-Reconfiguring Modular Robotics
- Ubiquitous computing
- Mesh networking
- Wireless sensor network